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Oxford University Press

New York and Los Angeles : the uncertain future

Obrazy
Autor
edited by David Halle, Andrew A. Beveridge
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2014
Spis treści

List of Figures . . xi
List of Tables . . xvii
List of Contributors . . xxiii

1. New York and Los Angeles: The Uncertain Future . . 1

PART ONE: Overview
2. The Big Picture: Demographic and Other Changes . . 33
3. The New York and Los Angeles Economies from Boom to Crisis . . 79
4. America's Leading International Trade Centers and their Entrepreneurial Agencies: Challenges and Strategies in the New York and Los Angeles Regions . . 103

PART TWO: Politics and Economics
5. New York City and Los Angeles: Government and Political Influence . . 137
6. Financial, Economic, and Political Crises: From Subprime Loans to Dodd-Frank, Occupy Wall Street, and Beyond . . 154
7. New York City and Los Angeles: Taxes, Budgets, and Managing the Financial Crisis . . 193

PART THREE: Social and Urban Problems
8. Policing, Crime, and Legitimacy in New York and Los Angeles: The Social and Political Contexts of Two Historic Crime Declines . . 219
9. Los Angeles and New York City Schools . . 263
10. How New York and Los Angeles Housing Policies Are Different — and Maybe Why . . 286
11. Residential Diversity and Division: Separation and Segregation among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, Affluent, and Poor . . 310

PART FOUR: Immigration and Ethnic Communities
12. New York and Los Angeles as Immigrant Destinations: Contrasts and Convergence . . 343
13. The Transformation of Chinese American Communities: New York vs. Los Angeles . . 358

PART FIVE: Planning and Environmentalism
14. Planning Los Angeles: The Changing Politics of Neighborhood and Downtown Development . . 385
15. A Land Ethic for the City of Water . . 413
16. Environmental and Social Justice Movements and Policy Change in Los Angeles: Is an Inside-Outside Game Possible? . . 445

PART SIX: Culture
17. Los Angeles, Where Architecture Is At . . 469
18. New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago as Depicted in Hit Movies . . 484
19. The Nonprofit Sector in New York City and Los Angeles . . 513

Bibliography . . 533
Index . . 573

Philosophical foundations of language in the law

Obrazy
Autor
editors Andrei Marmor, Scott Soames
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2011
Spis treści

List of Contributors . . ix

1. Introduction . . 1

2. The Value of Vagueness . . 14
   1. Introduction . . 14
   2. Legal instruments and legal standards . . 15
   3. Varieties of vagueness in legal instruments . . 17
   4. The guidance value and the process value of precision . . 19
   5. Arbitrariness and the normative principle . . 20
   6. The arbitrariness of precision . . 22
   7. Precision can be impossible . . 24
   8. Vague standards delegate power in ways that may comport with the purpose of the law . . 26
   9. Vague standards can encourage desirable forms of private ordering that achieve the law's purposes . . 27
   10. Summary . . 28
   11. Conclusion . . 29

3. What Vagueness and Inconsistency Tell Us about Interpretation . . 31
   1. Two kinds of vagueness . . 31
   2. Vagueness and the interpretation of legal, and non-legal, texts . . 33
   3. The value of vagueness . . 38
   4. Consequences for textualism . . 42
   5. Extending the lesson to the resolution of inconsistencies . . 44
   6. A note about legal positivism . . 51
   7. Purpose and normativity . . 52

4. Vagueness and the Guidance of Action . . 58
   1. Introduction . . 58
   2. State v Schaeffer . . 59
   3. The model of rules . . 62
   4. The model of standards . . 63
   5. Judgment and guidance . . 66
   6. Raz on authority . . 67
   7. Minimal guidance? . . 70
   8. Thick predicates . . 72
   9. Inchoate rules? . . 73
   10. Chilling behavior . . 75
   11. From traffic to torture . . 79
   12. The lesbian rule . . 81

5. Can the Law Imply More Than It Says? On Some Pragmatic Aspects of Strategic Speech . . 83
   1. The implied content of speech . . 84
   2. The normative framework of strategic speech . . 92
   3. Strategic speech in the law . . 96

6. Textualism and rhe Discovery of Rights . . 105
   1. Introduction . . 105
   2. Two models for discovering rights . . 112
   3. Cruel and unusual punishments . . 116
   4. Moral vision and constitutional interpretation . . 128
   5. Conclusion . . 129

7. Textualism, Intentionalism, and the Law of the Contract . . 130
   1. Jurisprudence as the science of legal effects . . 130
   2. A role for the philosophy of language . . 131
   3. Contract law and the law of the contract . . 134
   4. Gaps, default rules, and unenforceable provisions . . 135
   5. Textualism, hypothetical intentionalism, and the objective theory of contract . . 138
   6. Ambiguity . . 141
   7. Beyond ambiguity: Soper's Estate . . 147
   8. Personal meaning as the ground of contractual obligation . . 152
   9. An alternative account of'personal meaning' . . 157
   10. Skepticism about plain meaning . . 159
   11. Some conclusions . . 163

8. Modeling Legal Rules . . 165
   1. Introduction . . 165
   2. Particularism and rules . . 166
   3. That's it . . 167
   4. Distinguishing, overturning, and other legal actions . . 171
   5. Alternative I: Could legal rules be generics? . . 173
   6. Alternative II: Are legal rules governed by nonmonotonic logic? . . 176
   7. Conclusion . . 183

9. Trying to Kill the Dead: De Dicto and De Re Intention in Attempted Crimes . . 184
   1. Introduction . . 184
   2. Background: attempt, intention, and mens rea standards . . 187
   3. The solution . . 192
   4. Conclusion . . 216

10. Legislation as Communication? Legal Interpretation and the Study of Linguistic Communication . . 217
    1. Introduction . . 217
    2. Motivating the communication theory . . 221
    3. Refining the communication theory . . 226
    4. Raising doubts about the communication theory . . 233
    5. Different components and notions of communicative content . . 241
    6. Legislation and communication . . 250
    7. Conclusion . . 256

Bibliography . . 257
Legal Citations . . 265
Index . . 267

Battle for the castle : the myth of Czechoslovakia in Europe, 1914-1948

Obrazy
Autor
Andrea Orzoff
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2011
Spis treści

Introduction: The Golden Republic . . 3
1 Myth and Wartime . . 23
2 The Castle . . 57
3 Battles of the Legend Makers . . 95
4 Difficulties Abroad . . 136
5 A Time of Iron and Fire . . 174

Epilogue . . 215
Abbreviations and Definitions . . 221
Notes . . 223
Index . . 279

Golden harvest : events at the periphery of the Holocaust

Obrazy
Autor
Jan Tomasz Gross ; with Irena Grudzińska Gross
Miejsce wydania
New York
Rok wydania
2012
Spis treści

Introduction . . xiii

THE PHOTOGRAPH . . 3
THE NEED TO NAME . . 7
TAKING OVER JEWISH PROPERTY . . 10
PHOTOGRAPHS AND DOCUMENTATION OF THE SHOAH . . 17
THE GROUNDS OF EXTERMINATION CAMPS IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE WAR . . 20
THE BONES . . 26
THE DEATH CAMPS AND THE LOCAL POPULATION . . 28
TENDING ONE'S GARDEN . . 39
THE TAKING OF JEWISH PROPERTY BY ORDINARY PEOPLE . . 41
ABOUT THE KILLING OF JEWS . . 45
THE KIELCE REGION . . 50
"THICK DESCRIPTION" . . 58
CLOSE-UP OF A MURDER SCENE . . 59
HUMAN AGENCY . . 64
THE PERIPHERIES OF THE HOLOCAUST . . 67
BACK TO PHOTOGRAPHY . . 69
CONVERSATIONS ABOUT JEWISH PROPERTY . . 74
A CERTAIN KIND OF PATRIOTISM . . 77
HUNTING FOR JEWS . . 80
JEWS AND OBJECTS . . 87
SCHMALTZOWANYE . . 92
SHELTERING JEWS FOR PAYMENT . . 96
AN EXCEPTIONAL CASE . . 99
NEW RULES AND EXPERT'S OPINIONS . . 104
WHERE WAS THE CATHOLIC CHURCH? . . 109
HYPOCRITE LECTEUR, MON SEMBLABLE, MON FRERE . . 116

Afterword . . 123
Index . . 125

Parks in medieval England

Obrazy
Autor
S. A. Mileson
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2009
Spis treści

List of Figures . . viii
Abbreviations . . ix
Introduction . . 1

I. THE PURPOSE OF THE PARK
1. Hunting . . 15
2. Economy . . 45
3. Landscaping . . 82
4. Status . . 99

II. PARKS AND SOCIETY
Introduction to Part II . . 119
5. Parks and the Crown . . 121
6. Parks and the Aristocracy . . 146
7. Parks and the Community . . 158

Conclusion . . 180
Bibliography . . 183
Index . . 211

Seria
(Medieval History and Archaeology)

Investigating science communication in the information age : implications for public engagement and popular media

Obrazy
Autor
ed. by Richard Holliman [et al.]
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2009
Spis treści

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS . . ix
BIOGRAPHIES OF CONTRIBUTORS . . x
INTRODUCTION TO THE VOLUME . . xvi

SECTION 1 Engaging with public engagement . . 1
1.1 Moving forwards or in circles? Science communication and scientific governance in an age of innovation . . 3
1.2 The new politics of public engagement with science . . 18
1.3 (In)authentic sciences and (im)partial publics: (re)constructing the science outreach and public engagement agenda . . 35

SECTION 2 Researching public engagement . . 53
2.1 Investigating science communication to inform science outreach and public engagement . . 55
2.2 Learning to engage; engaging to learn: the purposes of informal science-public dialogue . . 72
2.3 Engaging with interactive science exhibits: a study of children's activity and the value of experience for communicating science . . 86

SECTION 3 Studying science in popular media . . 103
3.1 Science, communication and media . . 105
3.2 Models of science communication . . 128

SECTION 4 Mediating science news . . 147
4.1 Making science newsworthy: exploring the conventions of science journalism . . 149
4.2 Science reporting in the electronic embrace of the internet . . 166

SECTION 5 Communicating science in popular media . . 181
5.1 From flow to user flows: understanding 'good science' programming in the UK digital television landscape . . 183
5.2 Image-music-text of popular science . . 205

SECTION 6 Examining audiences for popular science . . 221
6.1 Reinterpreting the audiences for media messages about science . . 223
6.2 Investigating gendered representations of scientists, technologists, engineers and mathematicians on UK children's television . . 237
6.3 Interpreting contested science: media influence and scientific citizenship . . 254

FINAL REFLECTIONS . . 274
INDEX . . 279

Sociobiology of communication : an interdisciplinary perspective

Obrazy
Autor
ed. by Patrizia d'Ettore and David P. Hughes
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2008
Spis treści

Preface . . v
Acknowledgements . . ix
List of contributors . . xiii

1 The handicap principle and signalling in collaborative systems . . 1
2 Communication in bacteria . . 11
3 Communication in social networks of territorial animals: networking at different levels in birds and other systems . . 33
4 Communication between hosts and social parasites . . 55
5 Chemical communication and the coordination of social interactions in insects . . 81
6 Chemical communication in societies of rodents . . 97
7 Neurobiology of olfactory communication in the honeybee . . 119
8 Rapid evolution and sexual signals . . 139
9 Communication of mate quality in humans . . 157
10 The extended phenotype within the colony and how it obscures social communication . . 171
11 Synergy in social communication . . 191
12 Conflicting messages: genomic imprinting and internal communication . . 209
13 Language unbound: genomic conflict and psychosis in the origin of modern humans . . 225
14 The evolution of human communication and language . . 249
15 Why teach? The evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of costly information transfer . . 265
16 Grades of communication . . 275

Concluding remarks . . 289
Glossary . . 291
Index . . 295

Seria
(Oxford Biology)

Dog behaviour, evolution and cognition

Obrazy
Autor
Ádám Miklósi
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2009
Spis treści

1 Dogs in historical perspective, and conceptual issues of the study of their behaviour . . 1
1.1 Introduction . . 1
1.2 From behaviourism to cognitive ethology . . 2
1.3 Tinbergen's legacy: four questions plus one . . 8
1.4 Evolutionary considerations . . 11
1.5 What is it like to be a dog? . . 15
1.6 Lupomorphism or babymorphism? . . 16
1.7 Modelling of behaviour . . 17
1.8 An ethocognitive mental model for the dog . . 22
1.9 Conclusions for the future . . 24
Further reading . . 26

2 Methodological issues in the behavioural study of the dog . . 27
2.1 Introduction . . 27
2.2 Finding phenomena and collecting data . . 27
2.3 Making behavioural comparisons . . 30
2.4 Sampling and the problem of single cases (N = 1) . . 35
2.5 A procedural problem in naturalistic observations: the presence of humans . . 37
2.6 How to measure dog behaviour? . . 38
2.7 Asking questions . . 43
2.8 Conclusions for the future . . 45
Further reading . . 45

3 Dogs in anthropogenic environments: society and family . . 47
3.1 Introduction . . 47
3.2 Dogs in human society . . 47
3.3 Interactions between dogs and people in public . . 51
3.4 Dogs in the family . . 53
3.5 Dogs at work . . 56
3.6 Social roles of dogs in human groups . . 56
3.7 Social competition in dog-human groups and their consequences . . 57
3.8 Outcast dogs: life in animal shelters . . 62
3.9 Conclusions for the future . . 65
Further reading . . 65

4 A comparative approach to Canis . . 67
4.1 Introduction . . 67
4.2 Putting things into perspective: an overview of Canis . . 67
4.3 An overview of wolves . . 74
4.4 Wolf and dog: similarities and differences . . 89
4.5 Conclusions for the future . . 92
Further reading . . 93

5 Domestication . . 95
5.1 Introduction . . 95
5.2 Human perspective on dog domestication . . 95
5.3 Archaeology faces phylogenetics . . 101
5.4 Some concepts of evolutionary population biology . . 117
5.5 Emergence of phenotypic novelty . . 119
5.6 A case study of domestication: the fox experiment . . 131
5.7 Conclusions for the future . . 136
Further reading . . 136

6 The perceptual world of the dog . . 137
6.1 Introduction . . 137
6.2 Comparative perspectives . . 137
6.3 Vision . . 139
6.4 Hearing . . 142
6.5 Olfaction . . 144
6.6 Conclusions for the future . . 150
Further reading . . 150

7 Physical-ecological cognition . . 151
7.1 Introduction . . 151
7.2 Orientation in space . . 151
7.3 Spatial problem solving . . 155
7.4 Knowledge about objects . . 156
7.5 Memory for hidden objects . . 158
7.6 Folk physics in dogs? . . 161
7.7 Conclusions for the future . . 163
Further reading . . 163

8 Social cognition . . 165
8.1 Introduction . . 165
8.2 The affiliative aspects of social relationships . . 166
8.3 The agonistic aspects of social relationships . . 170
8.4 Communication in a mixed-species group . . 177
8.5 Play . . 189
8.6 Social learning in dogs . . 191
8.7 Social influence . . 193
8.8 Cooperation . . 196
8.9 Social competence . . 197
8.10 Conclusions for the future . . 200
Further reading . . 200

9 Development of behaviour . . 201
9.1 Introduction . . 201
9.2 What are developmental 'periods'? . . 201
9.3 Rethinking developmental periods in dogs . . 205
9.4 Sensitive periods in development . . 209
9.5 Attraction and attachment . . 214
9.6 Early experience and its influence on behaviour . . 216
9.7 Prediction of behaviour: 'Puppy testing' . . 217
9.8 Conclusions for the future . . 219
Further reading . . 219

10 Temperament and personality . . 221
10.1 Introduction . . 221
10.2 Descriptive approach to personality . . 223
10.3 Functional approach to personality . . 226
10.4 Mechanistic approach . . 230
10.5 Conclusions for the future . . 234
Further reading . . 235

11 Afterword: Heading towards 21st-century science . . 237
11.1 Comparare necesse est! . . 237
11.2 Natural model . . 237
11.3 Evolving dogs . . 237
11.4 Behavioural modelling . . 239
11.5 Ethical implications and researchers' mission . . 240
11.6 Dog genome and bioinformatics . . 241
11.7 Taws in hands' . . 241

References . . 243
Index . . 267

Seria
(Oxford Biology)

The Oxford companion to English literature

Obrazy
Autor
by Dinah Birch
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2009
Spis treści

Preface . . ix
Editors and Contributors, Seventh Edition . . xi
Abbreviations . . xvi
Note to the Reader . . xvii

The Oxford Companion to English Literature Introductory essays Literary Culture and the Novel in the New Millennium . . 1
Cultures of Reading . . 9
Black British Literature . . 16
Children's Literature . . 23

A-Z . . 33

Appendix 1: Chronology . . 1099
Appendix 2: Poets Laureate . . 1145
Appendix 3: Children's Laureates . . 1145
Appendix 4: Literary Awards . . 1146
Index of New and Heavily Revised Entries by Contributor . . 1151

Doing research on crime and justice

Obrazy
Autor
ed. by Roy D. King and Emma Wincup
Miejsce wydania
Oxford
Rok wydania
2008
Spis treści

Preface to the second edition . . vii
Preface to the first edition . . ix
Notes on Contributors . . xxiii
List of tables . . xxv
List of figures . . xxvii
Introduction . . 1

PART I PRACTICE AND POLITICS IN CRIMINOLOGICAL RESEARCH
1 The process of criminological research . . 13
2 The politics of criminological research . . 45

PART II THEORY, DATA, AND TYPES OF CRIMINOLOGICAL RESEARCH
3 The relationship between theory and empirical observations in criminology . . 75
4 In search of causes and explanations of crime . . 117
5 Doing evaluation research in criminology . . 141
6 Doing criminological research in ethnically and culturally diverse contexts . . 171
7 International comparative research in criminology . . 199

PART III RESEARCH ON CRIME, CRIMINALS, AND VICTIMS
8 Researching the state of crime . . 231
9 Researching 'street criminals' in the fielcha neglected art? . . 263
10 Mission impossible? Researching organized crime . . 291
11 Researching victims . . 315

PART IV RESEARCH ON CRIMINAL JUSTICE AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS
12 Police research . . 343
13 Research on the criminal courts . . 375
14 Research on community penalties . . 399
15 Doing research in prisons . . 431

PART V SOME RECENT CASE STUDIES
16 Cybercrime and online methodologies . . 455
17 Ethnographic research and the licensing courts . . 473
18 An embedded multimethod approach to prison research . . 487
19 Researching bullying in the classroom . . 501

Index . . 515